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Humidification may be required during winter operation. Water-Side Economizer The water-side economizer is another option for reducing energy use. 1 addresses its application. The waterside economizer consists of a water coil located in the self-contained unit upstream of the direct-expansion cooling coil. All economizer control valves, piping between the economizer coil, and the condenser and economizer control wiring can be factory installed (Figure 1). The water-side economizer takes advantage of the low cooling tower or evaporative condenser water temperature to (1) either precool the entering air, (2) assist mechanical cooling, or, (3) if the cooling water is cold enough, provide total system cooling.
The relative heating requirement of every space is determined by calculating the transmission heat flow per degree temperature difference between the space temperature and the outside temperature (assuming steady-state heat transfer). This is the sum of (1) the glass heat transfer coefficient times the glass areas, (2) the wall heat transfer coefficient times the wall area, and (3) the roof heat transfer coefficient times the roof area. Air-to-Transmission Ratio. The A/T ratio is the ratio of the primary airflow to a given space divided by the transmission per degree of that space: A/T ratio = Primary air/Transmission per degree.
The economics of these systems require extensive analysis. Boilers; gas, steam, and electric turbine-driven centrifugal refrigeration units; and absorption chillers may be installed in combination in one plant. In large buildings with core areas that require cooling and perimeter areas require heating, one of several heat reclaim systems may heat the perimeter to save energy. Chapter 8 gives details of these combinations, and Chapters 12, 13, and 14 give design details for central plants. The choice of equipment for a central heating and cooling plant depends on the following: The major types of refrigeration equipment in large systems use reciprocating compressors, helical rotary compressors, centrifugal compressors, and absorption chillers.
ASHRAE 2000 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook