By Gordon Newby
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Additional resources for A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam
5. H ˙ h is most great. ˙ ˆ hu akbar: Alla 6. Alla ˆ 7. Laˆ ilaˆha illa-llaˆh: There is no deity but Allaˆh. These elements are repeated a varying number of times in each call, depending on the region and the school of Islamic law. In many mosques, electronic recordings on timers have replaced the human call. Shıˆ¤ıˆs will add Ashhadu ' anna ¤ Aliyyan waˆlıˆyyu-llaˆh (I testify that ¤Alıˆ is protected by God), between 3 and 4 above, and Hayya ¤ alaˆ khayri-l¤ amal (Come to the ˙best deed) between 5 and 6 above.
Al-'Aws One of the two chiefly Arab tribes in the city of Madıˆnah at the time of the Prophet. They were rivals of the other mainly Arab tribe, al-Khazraj, as well as the Jewish tribes. Like all the Arab tribes in the city, their tribe contained some Jews and the Jewish tribes contained some Arabs. Some of the clans of the 'Aws were slower to enter Islam, but after the battle of Badr they were active Muslims, and their rivalry with the Khazraj disappeared after the death of Muhammad. ˙ ˆ yah 'a ˆ yah (Arabic: sign, miracle, token; 'a verse in the Qur'aˆn.
The name is not known from the Qur'aˆn, but derives from Jewish midrashic sources incorporated into the tafsıˆr traditions. al-¤asharah al-mubashsharah and caused to awaken by God. PostQur'aˆnic literature elaborates their story with material paralleling Christian hagiographic stories. ˆ b ar-rass (Arabic: people of as h a ˙ ˙well or ditch) the They are mentioned in the Qur'aˆn along with other unbelievers who were destroyed by Allaˆh for their unbelief. The Muslim exegetes know little of their history or identification.
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam by Gordon Newby